Calcium is present in the bloodstream of cats and is necessary for normal body function. Occasionally, calcium levels can become too high. This condition is known as hypercalcemia and could indicate a problem inside Kitty's body. While uncommon in cats, hypercalcemia can wreak havoc on body tissues, requiring prompt treatment.
Vitamin D Poisoning
Excess amounts of calcium in your beloved cat’s system can sometimes be caused by vitamin D toxicosis. Over a 24 to 72 hour period, your cat may experience a wide range of distressing symptoms associated with his hypercalcemia, including vomiting, diarrhea, weakness, depression, anorexia, polyuria (increased urination) and polydipsia (increased thirst). Vitamin D poisoning is most commonly caused by the ingestion of certain plants, rodenticides, supplements or food.
Parathyroid Gland Malfunction
The parathyroids are four small kidney-shaped glands adjacent to the thyroid glands on Kitty's neck. These glands secrete the PTH hormone which works hand-in-hand to regulate blood calcium. When parathyroid glands function abnormally, calcium in the body can rise to dangerous levels. To determine a parathyroid malfunction, your veterinarian will take a measurement of the ionized calcium concentration of your cat’s blood.
Cancers and Tumors
Cancers and tumors are a possible cause of high calcium in cats. The most common tumor types that accompany hypercalcemia include lymphoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Lymphoma originates in the lymphocyte cells, a type of white blood cell that is crucial to your pet’s defenses in the immune system. While squamous cell carcinoma tumors are generally fast-growing, an early diagnosis may improve your cat’s prognosis.
Other Causes of High Calcium
In cats, one of the most common causes of hypercalcemia is chronic renal failure. More common in older cats, this form of kidney disease is normally caused by kidney tumors, infections, damage to the kidneys or polycystic kidney disease. Bone deteriorating diseases may also be to blame for your cat’s diagnosis of hypercalcemia. In rare cases, high calcium levels may be due to aluminum toxicity or under-functioning adrenal glands.
Based in northern New York, Brandy Burgess has been writing on pets, technical documentation and health resources since 2007. She also writes on personal development for YourFreelanceWritingCareer.com. Burgess' work also has appeared on various online publications, including eHow.com. Burgess holds a Bachelor of Arts in computer information systems from DeVry University and her certified nurses aid certification.