A cat dealing with anxiety may feel the need to pee in an attempt to calm himself, but the litter box is not usually the place he decides to do it. Frequent trips to the litter box usually indicate an underlying medical problem, which requires professional treatment to correct.
The Nervous Cat
Cats are brilliant at hiding their true feelings, usually masking them with a look of indignation or apathy. A stressed cat may not exhibit obvious signs of his anxiety, but his behavior will betray his nerves if you know what to look for. He may hide or groom himself more often in an attempt to calm down. Anxious cats can also feel the need to urinate, but unfortunately the litter box is not where they feel the need to let loose. They tend to eliminate inappropriately when they're nervous, namely in areas they know they are not supposed to, such as on your bathroom rug or in a pile of clothes.
As an example of easier-said-than-done thinking, relieving your cat's anxiety may be as simple as removing whatever is making him stressed. For example, if he doesn't like visitors, offer him a quiet place to retreat to when you have guests. You could also try calming products such as Feliway or lavender oil scents to promote a sense of relaxation. For highly stressed kitties, a visit to your veterinarian may yield a prescription medication to help relieve anxiety and keep him calm.
Increased Urination Causes
Frequent trips to the litter box don't mean your cat is anxious; they mean he's well-mannered. Underlying medical conditions can trigger that urge to go more often than normal. In most cases, your kitty will still use his litter box -- he'll just use it more often. Conditions such as diabetes, hyperthyroidism and liver disease can increase his litter box trips as well as numerous kidney and urinary tract problems. If your cat's increased pee breaks are coupled with other symptoms, such as a change in appetite or weight, see your veterinarian to have him checked out.
Because there are numerous medical reasons for increased urination, there are therefore numerous treatment methods to correct it. Once your veterinarian has determined what has caused your kitty to have the bladder control of a pregnant woman, she can help create a treatment plan to combat the issue. Your cat may need medications, both short- and long-term, to correct the issue, or more involved care to help get him back in good health.
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